BRUCE L. GARY
B L G A R Y @ u m i c h . e d u

I was born in Ann Arbor, MI in 1939. After receiving a B. S. degree in Astronomy from the University of Michigan in 1961 I joined the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory's Radio Astronomy Branch (Washington, D.C.) and conducted studies of Jupiter. In 1963 I joined Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and for two years conducted microwave investigations of the moon. I worked briefly at Cornell University's Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory, in Puerto Rico. After returning to JPL's Space Sciences Division, I resumed planetary radio astronomy investigations of the moon and planets. During the remaining 33 years of my employment by Caltech, and assignment to JPL, my career underwent transitions from radio astronomy to boundary layer meteorology, then aviation safety, and finally atmospheric science of the stratosphere (with contributions to understanding the "ozone hole"). I retired from JPL in 1998, continued to work part-time for two years, then transitioned to a consulting arrangement that lasted 10 years. Additional consulting included Rockwell International (2 years), Dryden Flight Research Center (2 years), Caltech (2 years) and Vanderbilt University (3 years). With my private observatory in Hereford, AZ (pictured below) I became one of the first amateurs to observe exoplanet transits, and created the Amateur Exoplanet Archive (AXA) to accept and preserve transit observations by amateurs throughout the world; the ~640 transits in the AXA have been added to Caltech's archive of professional exoplanet transit observations (IPAC/NStED). I continue to initiate and coordinate international teams of amateur astronomers for specific observations that support professional astronomy goals.

WORK EXPERIENCE

Planetary Radio Astronomy

From 1964 to 1972 I used radio telescopes throughout the world to construct radiometric maps of the moon at a variety of wavelengths and lunar phases. This work remains unsurpassed in quality and comprehensiveness to this day. Analysis of these maps showed that the thermophysical and electrical properties of the uppermost few centimeters of the lunar regolith are very similar over the entire near-side of the moon (with the one exception of greater ilmenite content in Mare Tranquilitatis). These results still provide the strongest argument for generalizing Apollo in situ findings.

In 1968 I accepted leadership of JPL's Radio Astronomy Group. I wrote the software for controlling the 18-foot radio telescope at Table Mountain Radio Observatory, performed pointing and antenna property calibrations and assisted in development of a 36 GHz two-element radio interferometer at TMO. One fateful day a lightning strike of the antenna destroyed the computer and other equipment that was needed for a long-planned monitoring program of Venus, and by coincidence this signaled a shift in my interests toward the use of portable ground-based systems for studying the atmosphere.

Ground-Based Atmospheric Science (Boundary Layer)

In 1975 I joined JPL's Observational Systems Division and began applying radio astronomy remote sensing techniques to the study of atmospheric science problems. This transition away from radio astronomy led to principal investigator leadership for 41 field experiments using ground-based and airborne microwave remote sensor systems.

I supervised the development of ground-based instruments for use in the study of spatial and temporal properties of line-of-sight contents of atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water. Ground-based passive microwave systems were also developed for obtaining air temperature profiles. I pioneered in developing calibration techniques (including "tip curves") for water vapor radiometers as well as in the optimum use of combined mulit-frequency / multi-angle temperature profilers. These radiometer systems were used in a variety of studies, including pollution dispersion (mixing layer depth), stratus cloud formation and evolution (in collaboration with UCLA), demonstration of aviation icing hazard warnings near airports (Buffalo, NY), and numerous performance demonstrations that used radiosondes for validation.

Airborne Atmospheric Science (Microwave Temperature Profiler)

I led the development and flight of the first airborne Microwave Temperature Profiler, MTP, in support of a 1978 study of clear air turbulence, CAT. Additional CAT studies were conducted using an improved temperature profiler installed in NASA's C-141 aircraft (Kuiper Airborne Observatory). An instrument with further improvements was installed in NASA's ER-2 aircraft and was used in the 1987 Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange Project, STEP. Six months later, the ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler was one of 25 instruments participating in the first NASA-coordinated international airborne investigation of stratospheric ozone depletion, the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, AAOE (Punta Arenas, Chile, 1987). The MTP instrument, in addition to providing mesoscale meteorology context for in situ measurements during this mission, also discovered that Antarctic mountain waves extend above the tropopause and throughout the region of ozone destruction, and provide a mechanism to enhance "polar stratospheric cloud" (PSC) formation, which is a crucial step in the process for the destruction of stratospheric ozone.

The same MTP was used during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Science Experiment, AASE I, based in Norway, during which I discovered that air parcel trajectories exhibit vertical "wrinkles" and therefore air parcels experience fluctuations in temperature. This discovery has implications for the understanding of PSC formation and evolution. During AASE II (Norway, Alaska, Maine 1991/92), MTP instruments were flown aboard both participating NASA aircraft, the DC-8 and an ER-2. The MTP flew on 49 ER-2 flights during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft, ASHOE/MAESA, based in New Zealand and Hawaii, throughout 1994, which led to studies of tracer filament temperature signature anomalies. The MTP also flew during the ER-2 Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport, STRAT flights of 1995 and 1996, which were based in California and Hawaii. The DC-8 MTP flew during the 1995 and 1996 Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment, TOTE/VOTE, based in Hawaii, Alaska, Iceland and California. These flights have provided intriguing new information on meridional circulation.

An improved DC-8 MTP flew during the 1996 Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Study, SUCCESS, flights based in Kansas. These data were used to derive the first-ever 2-D isentrope topography for a mountain wave event over Colorado, allowing for quantification of cooling and heating histories of air parcels associated with lee wave clouds. During 1997 the ER-2 MTP participated in each of the 3 Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer, POLARIS, campaigns, based in Fairbanks, AK. Isentrope surfaces were found to be surprisingly smooth for this season and latitude, which inspired a comprehensive study showing that the amplitude of mesoscale vertical motions in the stratosphere can be predicted from four independent variables: latitude, season, altitude and underlying topography (two article links below).  

The DC-8 MTP was used in the Fall of 1997 for the SASS Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment, SONEX, based in Ireland and Bangor, ME, for the study of atmospheric chemistry impacts of subsonic aircraft. The ER-2 MTP was flown in an Air Force WB-57F during the Spring of 1998 for the Water Aerosol Mission, WAM, based in Texas. Dr. Mahoney was co-investigator for the last two experiments. I discontinued full-time employment from JPL on September 25, 1998, and for two years was employed by Caltech's JPL as an "on-call" employee for the purpose of providing occasional assistance to Dr. Mahoney, who is now the MTP Principal Investigator. From 2000 - 2010 I was a consultant for JPL in continued support of airborne MTP projects.

POST-RETIREMENT ACTIVITIES

Retirement has afforded me the opportunity to return to a childhood hobby of amateur astronomy, starting in 1999. In 2004 I became a member of a professional/amateur astronomy collaboration that has so far discovered five exoplanets (XO-1b to XO-5b). As far as I know I'm the only amateur doing all-sky photometry (transferring calibration from a standard star field in one part of the sky to a distant one needing calibration). This capability has been helpful on numerous collaborations with professionals (6 times for my role in supporting exoplanet discoveries). Some of my radio astronomy experience and various remote sensing projects before retirement have been useful with the astronomy hobby, and my rate of publications after retirement is similar to before: 25 publications since retirement (19 peer-reviewed in astronomy, 3 peer-reviewed in the atmospheric sciences and 5 non-peer reviewed books on miscellaneous topics). Im 2007 I created the Amateur Exoplanet Archive, AXA, which was the only public domain site for archiving amateur observations of exoplanet transits until the Czech Republic created a similar site in 2009 modeled on the AXA (the AXA was discontinued 2009 December).

"Writing" is another of my hobbies. I enjoy creating tutorial web pages for other amateurs wanting to improve their observing and data analysis techniques. I've self-published two editions of a book on this subject, Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs (the first edition was accepted for publication by Springer, which I declined due to concerns I had with their business model). This book is now out-of-print but available as a free PDF download). I've published 7 books and am preparing another edition of the exoplanet book. Each person at my age must have an opinion about their most important lifetime achievement, and few people would guess mine: it's not my development of the Microwave Temperature Profiler, or my 4 patents, or my 60 peer-reviewed publications (153 according to Google Scholar), or my participation in the high-profile international stratospheric "ozone hole" campaigns, or my definitive characterization of mesoscale stratospheric temperature fluctuations, or my role in supporting the discovery of transiting exoplanets - it's my book Genetic Enslavement: A Call to Arms for Individual Liberation (five editions: 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011, 2014). This book is a product of sociobiology speculations that began in 1963, before the field had a name. It is my proudest achievement, and the only one that may have lasting value, whether or not it achieves any public recognition. Since it is a critical look at the evolutionary origins of human nature, and portrays human foibles from the perspective of a reluctant misanthrope, it has no commercial prospects.


Retirement private observatory, Hereford Arizona Observatory (HAO), used for observations of exoplanets
(for XO and AXA projects) and dwarf eclipsing binaries (for Vanderbilt University).
Details at link.

INTERNATIONAL OBSERVING PROGRAMS (Initiation, Coordination and Archiving)

    KAFO, Kepler Amateur Follow-up Observations; search for new TTV features of long period candidates; 2013 
    PAWM2, Pro-Am White Dwarf Monitoring (2nd project), search for transit of Earth-size exoplanets in habitable zone; 2012+
    A-SETI, Amateur search for optical flashes from directions along ecliptic; 2013.
    YYGem, YY Geminorum (eclipsing M dwarf pair) photometry support of professional spectropolarimetry observations (Dr. Hebb); 2012.
                       9 observers, 8 countries, 127 light curves, 8 filter bands, 21 flares. Recently resumed observations.
    PAWM, Pro-Am White Dwarf Monitoring, search for transit of Earth-size exoplanets in habitable zone (P = 3 - 30 hrs); 2011.
                      38 observers, 13 countries, ~280 light curves, 1644 observing hrs, 40 white dwarfs had no transits, discovered two variables.
    XO, exoplanet search using transits of wide field camera candidates (2nd project, not in public domain); 2013 to present.
    AXA, Amateur Exoplanet Archive, preservation of amateur observations of first 74 exoplanets; now incorporated in Caltech's IPAC; 2007 - 2009.
                      52 observers, 19 countries, ~640 light curves, ~3000 observing hours. (AXA was precursor & model for ETD)

CONSULTING


   Planetary Science Institute (Reddy & Le Corre), asteroid observing, 2014 to present.
   Vanderbilt University, 2009 to 2012, Visiting Scholar, observations of VU targets (dwarf eclipsing binaries, exoplanet candidates)
   Caltech, 2008 July to 2009 December, transferring my Amateur Exoplanet Archive to Caltech's IPAC computer (NStED section)
   JPL, 2000 to 2010, MTP calibration idiosyncracies, mesoscale temperature fluctuation analysis & publication
   NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, 2000 - 2002, evaluation of Reciprocal Richardson Number warning algorithm for CAT
   Rockwell International, 1991-1992, commercial Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) warnings

POST-RETIREMENT LINKS (small subset of hundreds)

    Master List of links to most of my observing projects
    Comet ISON (goal of rotation LC)
    KAFO (search for new multiple exoplanet systems using TTV)
    PAWM & PAWM2 (search for exoplanets orbiting a white dwarf)
    Asteroid/NEO 1998 QE2 (a binary) phase-folded light curves exhibiting several "mutual events" (binary transits, eclipses, etc)
    Asteroid/NEO 2012 DA14 rotation period = 9.1 hrs
    M67 (all-sky calibration of 47 stars in 6 bands); also NGC 1342 calibrated field (40 stars)
    YY Gem (M dwarf eclipsing binary photometry pro/am support; S&T blog)
    PAWM (white dwarf exoplanet transit search)
    Amateur Exoplanet Archive (~640 amateur transit light curves)
    Asteroid (NEO) Apophis (1st rotation light curve yielding rotation period)
    Bruce's Astrophotos home page
    Clear Air Turbulence home page
    Ozone Hole Mission Support home page
    General Meteorology Studies home page

PATENTS (1st page of each link)

    "Preventing SST Unstart Using a Microwave Radiometer," U. S. Patent #6,209,821, Apr 3, 2001
    "Microwave Temperature Profiler for Clear Air Turbulence Prediction," U. S. Patent #5,117,689, June 2, 1992

    "System for Indicating Fuel-Efficient Aircraft Altitude," U. S. Patent #4,474,062, Oct. 2, 1984

    "CAT Altitude Avoidance System," U. S. Patent #4,346,595, Aug. 31, 1982

AWARDS AND RELATED HONORS

    Asteroid "86279 Brucegary" was named for me by discoverer Jeff Medkeff and Junk Bond Observatory director David Healy (discovered 1999.10.17).
    NASA Achievement Awards (~10 Group Achievement for participation in international "ozone hole" missions, ~6 Individual Achievement awards).
    Who's Who in America, 57th Edition (2003)
    New York Times, page 2, picture related to "ozone hole" mission based in Norway, 1989.
    Article in Spaceflight magazine (1958), featuring the origins of my invention of the MTP instrument and its use for "ozone hole" studies. 

BOOK PUBLICATIONS (links)

    Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs, Second Edition, 2009 (sold by Adirondack Astronomy, Starizona; free PDF download), New Edition in preparation
    Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs, First Edition, 2008 (sold at cost by author, free PDF download)
    Quotes for Misanthropes: Mocking Homo Hypocritus, 2007, 2014 (Amazon link)
    A Misanthrope's Holiday: Vignettes and Stories, 2007 (Google Books link)
    Genetic Enslavement: A Call to Arms for Individual Liberation, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011, 2014 (Amazon link)
    Midnight Thoughts, 2014 (Amazon link)
    Essays From Another Paradigm, 1992, 1993

JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS

Gary, B. L., 2013, "2012 DA14 Rotation Lightcurve," The Minor Planet Bulletin, 40, #3, p 122, 2013 Jul-Sep. PDF link & web page link

Gary, Bruce L.,  T. G. Tan, Ivan Curtis, Paul J. Tristram and Akihhiko Fukui, 2013, "Searching for White Dwarf Exoplanets: WD 2359-434 Case Study", Society for Astronomical Sciences 2013 Conference Proceedings, PDF link  PPT link 

[Beatty, Thomas G. et al (30 others), "KELT-2Ab: A Hot Jupiter Transiting the Bright (V=8.77) Primary Star of a Binary System," Earth & Planetary Astrophysics, 2012, link. (In spite of my contribution of all-sky calibrated magnitudes in 5 bands, used for SED, I declined co-authorship)]

[Siverd, Robert J. et al (31 others), "KELT-1b: A Strongly Irradiated, Highly Inflated, Short Period, 27 Jupiter-mass Companion Transiting a mid-F Star," Earth & Planetary Astrophysics, 2012, link. (In spite of my contribution of 6 light curves in 5 bands to this discovery, I declined co-authorship.)]

Gary, Bruce L., Leslie H. Hebb, Jerry L. Foote, Cindy N. Foote, Roberto Zambelli, Joao Gregorio, F. Joseph Garlitz, Gregor Srdoc, Takeshi Yada, Anthony I. Ayiomamitis, "Photometric Monitoring by Amateurs in Support of a YY Gem Professional Observing Project," Society for Astronomical Sciences, 2012 Conference Proceedings (http://www.socastrosci.org/publications.html & S&T blog & PDF download).

Fleming, Scott W. et al, "Eclipsing Binary Science Via the Merging of Transit and Doppler Exoplanet Survey Data - A Case Study With the MARVELS Pilot Project and SuperWASP," Astonom. J., 2011, http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.2027

Fleming, Scott W., et al, 2010, "Discovery of a Low-Mass Companion to a Metal-Rich F Star with MARVELS Pilot Project," http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.1627

Lee, Brian L. et al, 2010, "MARVELS-1b: A Short-Period, Brown Dwarf Desert Candidate from the SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Search," accepted for publication in ApJ. http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.5170 

Gary, Bruce L., Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs: Second Edition (book), Hereford, AZ: Reductionist Publications d/b/a, 2009, link.

Gary, Bruce L., "Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere" Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2008 August 14, link.

McCullough, P. R., Christopher J. Burke, Jeff A. Valenti, Doug Long, Christopher M. Johns-Krull, P. Machalek, K. A. Janes, B. Taylor, J. Gregorio, C. N. Foote, Bruce L. Gary, M. Fleenor, Enrique García-Melendo, T. Vanmunster, "XO-4b: An Extrasolar Planet Transiting an F5V Star", 2008: http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/0805.2921 

Burke, Christopher J., P. R. McCullough, Jeff A. Valenti, Doug Long, Christopher M. Johns-Krull,  P. Machalek, Kenneth A. Janes, B. Taylor, Michael L. Fleenor, Cindy N. Foote, Bruce L. Gary, Enrique Garcia-Melendo, J. Gregorio, T. Vanmunster, "XO-5b: A Transiting Jupiter-sized Planet with a Four Day Period", 2008: http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/0805.2399

Gary, Bruce L., Quotes for Misanthropes: Mocking Homo Hypocritus, Reductionist Publications d/b/a, 2007: link

Johns-Krull, C. M., McCullough, P.R., Burke, C. J., Valenti, J.A., Janes, K.A., Heasley, J.N., Prato, L., Bissinger, R., Fleenor, M., Foote, C.N., Garcia-Melendo, E., Gary, B.L., Howell, P.J., Mallia, F., Masi, G., Vanmunster, T., "XO-3b: A Massive Planet in an Eccentric Orbit Transiting an F5V Star,"  2007, ApJ.

Price, A. plus 22 others, "A Search for SS Cyg Outburst Predictability," PASP, December, 2007.

Gary, Bruce L., Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs (book), Hereford, AZ: Reductionist Publications d/b/a, 2007.

Healy, D. and B. Gary, "MaxCam Gets Imagers Started," Astronomy (magazine), pg. 70-72, July, 2007.

Burke, Christopher J., P. R. McCullough, Jeff A. Valenti, Christopher M. Johns-Krull, Kenneth A. Janes, J. N. Heasley, F. J. Summers, J. E. Stys, R. Bissinger, Michael L. Fleenor, Cindy N. Foote, Enrique Garcia-Melendo, Bruce L. Gary, P. J. Howell, F. Mallia, G. Masi, B. Taylor, T. Vanmunster, "XO-2b: Transiting Hot Jupiter in a Metal-rich Common Proper Motion Binary," submitted to Astrophysical Journal, May 1, 2007: http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.0003

Gary, Bruce L., A Misanthrope's Holiday: Vignettes and Stories, Reductionist Publications d/b/a (Second Edition), 2007, link

Shankland, P. D., E. J. Rivera, G. Laughlin, D. L. Blank, A. Price, B. Gary, R. Bissinger, F. Ringwald, G. White, G. Henry, P. McGee, A. S. Wolf, B. Carter, S. Lee, J. Biggs, B. Monard, "On the Search for Transits of the Planets Orbiting GL 876," Ap J, Part 1, ms65295, 2006: http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0608489

Gary, B. L., "Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Stratosphere" Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2006: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/4577/2006/acp-6-4577-2006.html

McCullough, P.R., Stys, J. E., Valenti, J. A., Johns-Krull, C. M., Janes, K. A., Heasley, J. N., Bye, B. A., Dodd, C., Fleming, S. W., Pinnick, A., Bissinger, R., Gary, B. L., Howell, P. J., Vanmunster, T., "A Transiting Planet of a Sun-like Star", Astrophys. J., 648, 2, 1228-1238, September, 2006.

Gary, Bruce L. and David Healy, "Image Subtraction Procedure for Observing Faint Asteroids," The Minor Planet Bulletin, 33, 1, January-March 2006: link

Price, A, and 16 others, "Planetary Transits of the Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey Candidate TrES-1b," J. Amer. Assoc. Var. Star Obs., 34, 17, 2005.

Gary, Bruce L., The Making of a Misanthrope: Book 1, Hereford, AZ: BLG Publishing, August, 2005.

Pan, L. L., W. J. Randel, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney and E. J. Hintsa, "Definitions and Sharpness of the Extratropical Tropopause: A Trace Gas Perspective, J. Geophys. Review, 109, D23103, 2004.

Price, A. and 32 others, "A New Cataclysmic Variable in Hercules," PASP, December 2004.

Price, A. T. Vanmunster, D. Starkey, D. Boyd, R. Zissell, B. Gary, K. Graham, W. Macdonald II, B. Aquino, D. West, J. Blackwell, G. Walker, M. Simonsen, A. Henden, M. R. Templeton, J. A. Mattei, "Flickering and Periodic Activity in the 2004 Outburst of BZ UMa," Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), # 5526, 2004: link

Gary, B. L., "CCD Photometry of Asteroid 12753 Povenmire," Minor Planet Bulletin, 31, #3, 2004: link

Gary, B. L., Genetic Enslavement: A Call to Arms for Individual Liberation, 2004, 2006, 2008, Hereford, AZ: BLG Publishing: link

Price, A. et al (& 15 co-authors incl B. Gary), "Superhumps in the 2003 UV PER Superoutburst," submitted to Commission 27 and 42 of the IAU Information Bulletin on Variable Stars in 2004.

    _____________________________   retired 1998 September  _________________________________________

Jensen, E. J., O. B. Toon, A. Tabazadeh, G. W. Sachse, B. E. Anderson, K. R. Chan, C. W. Twohy, B. Gandrud, S. M. Aulenbach, A. Heymsfield, J. Hallett, B. Gary, "Ice Nucleation Processes in Upper Tropospheric Wave-Clouds Observed During SUCCESS," Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1363-1366, May 1, 1998.

Dean-Day, J., K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, T. P. Bui, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, "Dynamics of Rocky-Mountain Lee Waves Observed During SUCCESS," Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1351-1354, May 1, 1998.

Burris, J., W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, U. Singh, "Lidar Temperature Measurements During the TOTE/VOTE Mission," J. Geophys. Res., 103, 3505-3510, 1998.

Hintsa, E. J., K. A. Boering, E. M. Weinstock, J. G. Anderson, B. L. Gary, L. Pfister, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. J. Margitan, T. P. Bui, "Troposphere-to-Stratosphere Transport in the Lowermost Stratosphere from Measurements of H2O, CO2, N2O and O3," Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2655-2658, July 15, 1998.

Tabazadeh, A., O. B. Toon, B. L. Gary, J. T. Bacmeister, M. R. Schoeberl, "Observational Constraints on the Formation of Type Ia Polar Stratospheric Clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2109-2112, Aug. 1, 1996.

Bacmeister, Julio T., Stephen D. Eckermann, Paul A. Newman, Leslie Lait, K. Roland Chan, Max Lowenstein, Michael H. Proffitt, Bruce L. Gary, "Stratospheric Horizontal Wavenumber Spectra of Winds, Potential Temperature, and Atmospheric Tracers Observed by High-Altitude Aircraft," J. Geophys. Res., 101, D5, 9441-9470, Apr. 27, 1996.

Murphy, D. M., B. L. Gary, "Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations and Polar Stratospheric Clouds,"  J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1753-1760, May 15, 1995.

Weinheimer, A. J., J. G. Walega, B. A. Ridley, B. L. Gary, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, B. E. Anderson, J. E. Collins, "Meridional Distribution of NOx, NOy, and Other Species in the Lower Stratosphere and Upper Troposphere During AASE II," Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2583-2586, Nov. 15, 1994.

Bacmeister, J. T., P. A. Newman, B. L. Gary, K. R. Chan, "An Algorithm for Forecasting Wave-Related Turbulence in the Stratosphere," Weather and Forecasting, 9, 2, June 1994.

Pueschel, R. F., G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, S. D. Howard, B. Gary, J. M. Livingston, P. Newman, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, "Northern Polar Vortex Aerosol Variability," submitted to Geophys. Res. Letters, June 1993.

Chan, K. R., L. Pfister, T. P. Bui, S. W. Bowen, J. Dean-Day, B. L. Gary, D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, C. R. Webster, and R. D. May, "A Case Study of the Mountain Lee Wave Event of January 6, 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett, 20, 2551-2554, Nov. 19, 1993.

Toon, O. B., E. V. Browell, B. Gary, R. Pueschel, P. Russell, M. Schoeberl, G. C. Toon, F. Valero, H. Selkirk, J. Jordan, "Heterogeneous Reaction Probabilities, Solubilities, and Physical State of Cold Sulfuric Acid Aerosols," Science, August 27, 1993.

Pfister, L., K. R. Chan, T. P. Bui, S. Bowen, M. Legg, B. Gary, K. Kelly, M. Proffitt, W. Starr, "Gravity Waves Generated by a Tropical Cyclone During the STEP Tropical Field Program:  A Case Study," J. Geophys. Res., 98, D5, 8611-8638, May 20, 1993.

Russell, P. B., O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, G. C. Toon, B. Gary, M. Schoeberl, F. P. J. Valero, R. Pueschel, "Combined Use of Microwave and Optical Measurements on the NASA DC-8 to Determine Aerosol and Gas Properties Related to Ozone Depletion," Proceedings of IEEE Topical Symposium on Earth and Atmosphsere Sensing, 1993 March 22-25, ISBN 0-7803-0969-3.

Dye, J. E., B. W. Gandrud, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, M. Lowenstein, G. V. Ferry, K. R. Chan, and B. L. Gary, "Particle Size Distributions in Arctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds: Growth and Nucleation of Sulfuric Acid Droplets and Implications for Cloud Formation," J. Geophys. Res., 97, 8015-8034, May 30, 1992.

Gary, B. L. and S. J. Keihm, "Microwave Sounding Units and Global Warming," Science, 251, 316, 1991 Jan 18.

Bacmeister, J. T., M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman and B. Gary, "Small-Scale Waves Encountered During AASE," Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 349-352, 1990.

Bacmeister, J. T. and B. Gary, "ER-2 Mountain Wave Encounter Over Antarctica: Evidence for Blocking," Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 81-84, 1990.

Gandrud, R. W., J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, G. V. Ferry, M. Lowenstein, K. R. Chan, L. Sanford, B. Gary and K. Kelly, "The January 30, 1989 Arctic Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Event: Evidence for a Mechanism of Dehydration," Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 457-460, 1990.

Lait, R. L., M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, M. H. Proffitt, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, B. Gary, J.J. Margitan, E. Browell, M. P. McCormick and A. Torres, "Reconstruction of O3 and N2O Fields from ER-2, DC-8, and Balloon Observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 521-524, 1990.

Gary, B. L, "Observational Results Using the Microwave Temperature Profiler During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment," J. Geophys. Res., 94, 11,223-11,231, 1989.

Denning, R. F., S. L. Guidero, G. S. Parks and B. L. Gary, "Instrument Description of the Airborne Microwave Temperature Profiler," J. Geophys. Res., 94, 16,757-16,765, 1989.

Hartmann, D. L., K. R. Chan, B. L. Gary, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, R. L. Martin, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske and S. E. Strahan, "Potential Vorticity and Mixing in the South Polar Vortex During Spring," J. Geophys. Res., 94, 11,625-11,640, 1989.

Proffitt, M. H., K. K. Kelly, J. A. Powell and B. L. Gary, "Evidence for Diabatic Cooling and Poleward Transport Within and Around the 1987 Antarctic Ozone Hole," J. Geophys. Res., 94, D14, 16,797-16,813, 1989.

Proffitt, M. H., J. A. Powell, A. F. Tuck, D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, B. L. Gary, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. Lowenstein and J. R. Podolske, "A Chemical Definition of the Boundary of the Antarctic Ozone Hole," J. Geophys. Res., 94, D9, 11,437-11,448, 1989.

Wilson, J. C., M. Lowenstein, D. W. Fahey, B. Gary, S. D. Smith, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry and K. R. Chan, "Observations of Condensation Nuclei in the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: Implications for New Particle Formation and Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation," J. Geophys. Res., 94, D14, 16,437-16,448, 1989.

Schoeberl, M. R., L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, R. L. Martin, M. H. Proffitt, D. L. Hartmann, M. Lowenstein, J. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, J. Anderson, K. R. Chan and B. Gary, "Reconstruction of the Constituent Distribution and Trends in the Antarctic Polar Vortex From ER-2 Flight Observations," J. Geophys. Res., 94, D14, 16,815-16,845, 1989.

Conel, James E., Robert O. Green, Veronique Carrere, Jack S. Margolis, Ronald E. Alley, Gregg Vane, Carol L. Bruegge, and Bruce L. Gary, "Atmospheric Water Mapping with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Conference Procedings, JPL Publication 87-38, 1987.

Treuhaft, R. N., C. D. Edwards, B. L. Gary, G. E. Lanyi, S. E. Robinson, "Temporal Water Vapor Fluctuations for Phase-Delay Interferometric Geodesy," EOS, 67, 914, 1986.

Gary, B. L., S. J. Keihm and M. A. Janssen, "Optimum Strategies and Performance for the Remote Sensing of Path-Delay Using Ground-Based Microwave Radiometers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, GE-23, 479-484, 1985.

Gary, B. L., "Clear Air Turbulence Avoidance Using an Airborne Microwave Radiometer," AIAA Pap., AIAA-84-0273, 1984.

Gary, B. L., "An Airborne Remote Sensor for the Avoidance of Clear Air Turbulence," AIAA Pap., AIAA-81-0297, 1981.

Janssen, M. A., B. L. Gary, S. Gulkis, E. T. Olsen, F. S. Soltis and N. I. Yamane, "The Table Mountain 8-mm Wavelength Interferometer," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, AP-27, 759-763, 1979.

Keihm, S. J. and B. L. Gary, "Comparison of Theoretical and Observed 3.55 cm Wavelength Brightness Temperature Maps of the Full Moon," Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 10th, 2311-2319, 1979.

Gary, B. L. and S. J. Keihm, "Interpretation of Ground-Based Microwave Measurements of the Moon Using a Detailed Regolith Properties Model," Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 9th, 2885-2900, 1978.

Gary, B. L., "Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus Disk Temperature Measurements at 2.07 and 3.56 cm," Atronom. J., 79, 318-320, 1974.

Gulkis, S., B. Gary, M. Klein and C. Stelzried, "Observations of Jupiter at 13-cm Wavelength During 1969 and 1971," Icarus, 18, 181-191, 1973.

Gary, B. L., E. T. Olsen and P. W. Rosenkranz, "Radio Observations of Cygnus X-3 and the Surrounding Region," Nature, 95, 128-130, 1972.

Gulkis, S. and B. Gary, "Circular Polarization and Total Flux Measurements of Jupiter at 13.1 cm Wavelength," Astronom. J., 76, 12-16, 1971.

Gary, B. and S. Gulkis, "New Circular Polarization Measurements of Jupiter's Decimeter Radiation," Astronom. J., 158, L193-195, 1969.

Gary, B., "Results of a Radiometric Moon-Mapping Investigation at 3 Millimeters Wavelength," Astrophys. J., 147, 245-254, 1967.

Gary, B., "Mercury's Microwave Phase Effect," Astronom. J., 149, L141-145., 1967.

Gary, B., J. Stacey and F. D. Drake, "Radiometric Mapping of the Moon at 3 Millimeters Wavelength," Astrophys. J., Supp. 108, XII, 239-262, 1965.

Gary, B., "An Investigation of Jupiter's 1400 Mc/sec Radiation," Astronom. J., 68, 568-572, 1963. Link (using Bayesian Estimation Theory without realizing it)

Miller, A. C. and B. L. Gary, "Measurements of the Decimeter Radiation from Jupiter," Astronom. J., 67, 727-731, 1962.
                ________________________________________________________________

This site opened:  1998.08.25.  Last Update:  2014.01.10